Cyclonic separator separates particles from air, gas or fluid, without the use of filters, with the help of a vortex. Rotational effects and gravity are used for separating composites of solids and fluids. The process can also be used to separate tiny droplets of fluid from gas flow.
High speed of rotation is achieved by using a cylindrical or conical receptacle called a cyclone. The air flows in a spiral pattern, beginning at the top (wider part) of the cyclone and ends at the bottom (narrow) part of the cyclone. The larger particles are unable to keep up with the current so they slowly fall towards the bottom of the cyclone, where they can be removed. In the conical part, the current moves towards the narrower part of the cyclone, the flow rate is reduced and the smaller and heavier particles are separated. The geometry of the cyclone and the flow rate define the cut point of the cyclone.
The cut point of the cyclone is the size of particles that are removed with 50 % efficiency. Particles larger than that will be removed with greater efficiency and smaller particles with lower efficiency.